Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites: Optimization of the HS-SPME procedure and sample storage conditions
Non-targeted metabolomics research of human volatile urinary metabolome can be used to identify potential biomarkers associated with the changes in metabolism related to various health disorders. To ensure reliable analysis of urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), parameters affecting the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure have been evaluated and optimized. The influence of incubation and extraction temperatures and times, coating fibre material and salt addition on SPME efficiency was investigated by multivariate optimization methods using reduced factorial and Doehlert matrix designs. The results showed optimum values for temperature to be 60 °C, extraction time 50 min, and incubation time 35 min. The proposed conditions were applied to investigate urine samples’ stability regarding different storage conditions and freeze-thaw processes. The sum of peak areas of urine samples stored at 4 °C, −20 °C, and −80 °C up to six months showed a time dependent decrease over time although storage at −80 °C resulted in a slight non-significant reduction comparing to the fresh sample. However, due to the volatile nature of the analysed compounds, more than two cycles of freezing/thawing of the sample stored for six months at −80 °C should be avoided whenever possible.
The paper can be found at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039914017308925