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Sex-related response in mice after sub-acute intraperitoneal exposure to silver nanoparticles. NanoImpact, Volume 23, July 2021, Autori: BlankaTariba Lovaković, Rinea Barbir, Barbara Pem, Walter Goessler, Marija Ćurlin, Vedran Micek, Željko Debeljak, Lucija Božičević, Krunoslav Ilić, Ivan Pavičić, Dunja Gorup, Ivana Vinković Vrček Sažetak Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most commercialized nanomaterials in biomedicine due to their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, possible health hazards of exposure to AgNPs are yet to be understood and therefore raise public concern in regards of their safety. In this study, sex-related differences, role of steroidal hormones and influence of two different surface stabilizing agents (polymer vs. protein) on distribution and adverse effects of AgNPs were investigated in vivo. Intact and gonadectomised male and female mice were treated with seven AgNPs doses administered intraperitoneally during 21 days. After treatment, steroid hormone levels in serum, accumulation of Ag levels and oxidative stress biomarkers in liver, kidneys, brain and lungs were determined. Sex-related differences were observed in almost all tissues. Concentration of Ag was significantly higher in the liver of females compared to males. No significant difference was found for AgNP accumulation in lungs between females and males, while the lungs of intact males showed significantly higher Ag accumulation compared to gonadectomised group. Effect of surface coating was also observed, as Ag accumulation was significantly higher in kidneys and liver of intact females, as well as in kidneys and brain of intact males treated with protein-coated AgNPs compared to polymeric AgNPs. Oxidative stress response to AgNPs was the most pronounced in kidneys where protein-coated AgNPs induced stronger effects compared to polymeric AgNPs. Interestingly, protein-coated AgNPs reduced generation of reactive oxygen species in brains of females and gonadectomised males. Although there were no significant differences in levels of hormones in the AgNP-exposed animals compared to controls, sex-related differences in oxidative stress parameters were observed in all organs. Results of this study highlight the importance of including the sex-related differences and effects of protein corona in biosafety evaluation of AgNPs exposure

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